Institute - a short history



[edit] 1880-1900

  • 1886 - a first photo record of the Earth's magnetic field is produced at the magnetic department of Irkutsk Nicholas Geophysical observatory.
  • 1 November 1886 - a magneto-meteorological observatory is opened at Zuy village. The observatory's main objective was to provide continuous registration of the Earth's magnetic field characteristics.

[edit] 1900-1930

  • 1914 - The magnetic department of Irkutsk Nicholas Geophysical observatory moves to Zuy village, 35 km away from Irkutsk city, due to industrial noise.
  • 1920 - The magnetic department is handed over to the Hydrometeorological Service ("Gidrometsluzhba") Headquarters.

[edit] 1940-1960

  • 1941 - a large radio center is built in Irkutsk, which, to enhance communication reliability, required information not only on magnetic disturbances, but on ionospheric situation as well.
  • 3 February 1941 - a first record of ionospheric characteristics is made using an ionosonde. Regular studies of ionospheric physics begin.
  • 1948 - Irkutsk ionospheric station comes into operation, starting to provide radio-communication condition forecasts for the radio centre.
  • 1952 - Cosmic ray intensity registration begins using an automatic ASC-2 ionization camera.
  • 1952 - vertical earth currents are measured for the first time in natural conditions of a homogenious medium, in Lake Baikal, which was of great importance for specification and working out techniques for magneto-telluric sounding of the Earth crust in order to search for minerals.
  • 1956 - Irkutsk geophysical observatory is re-organised into a complex magnetic-ionospheric station (CMIS). The geophysical complex is supplemented with optical and radio astronomical tools for observing the Sun.
  • 1956 - first optical observations of the Sun. Participation in the 'International Active Sun Year" (IASY) programme.
  • 1957 - Irkutsk CMIS takes part in a largest international programme - the "International Geophysical Year"
  • 1958 - interference related to the East-Siberia Railway electrification forced magnetic observations to be moved from Zuy village to Patrony village, where measurements of Earth magnetic field characteristics are still going on.
  • 1958 - Irkutsk ionospheric station is included among the USSR Sun Service reference stations.

[edit] 1960-1980

  • 27 May 1960 - The RSFSR Council of Ministers' Regulation No 3310-r approves the USSR Academy of Sciences' proposal to organise a Siberian Institute of Earth Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (SibIZMIR SD AS USSR) in Irkutsk.
  • 8 July 1960 - USSR AS Presidium Act No 657 on Organising an Institute of Earth Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (SibIZMIR SD AS USSR).
  • 1960 - science papers begin to be published regularly in a SibIZMIR SD AS USSR Collection "Researches in Geomagnetism, Aeronomy and Solar Physics".
  • 1964 - a complex magnetic-ionospheric station (CMIS) is organised in Norilsk city.
  • 1964 - construction begins of a solar optical observatory in the Eastern Sayan mountains, at an altitude of 2000 m.
  • 1964 - work related to producing large-scale optics begins in connection with designing and constructing the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope and creation of a Baikal Astrophysical Observatory.
  • 1965 - The Institute takes part in the "International Year of the Quiet Sun" (IQSY) programme.
  • 1967 - first expedition along the Leningrad to Buenos Aires route devoted to exploring the latitudinal variation of cosmic ray intensity.
  • 1969 - the Institute's first building comes into operation.
  • 1969 - a complex high-latitude expedition is carried out aimed at studying geophysical phenomena in high latitudes.
  • 1970 - the Sayan spectrograph for cosmic rays comes into operation.
  • 1973 - the solar optical observatory's construction is completed in the Eastern Sayan.
  • 1974 - a Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) begins to be constructed, a 256-antenna cross-shaped radio interferometer; its stagewise operation begins in 1982.
  • 1976 - An automated solar telescope comes into operation with a complex of magnetographs and spectrophotometers.
  • 1978 - the Institute is designated as a base observatory of the USSR and states of CMEA for activities under the international Solar Maximum Year (SMY) programme.
  • 1979 - Dissertation board is created for the defence of candidates' dissertations.

[edit] 1980-2000

  • 1982 - a Solar telescope for operative prediction (STOP) comes into operation.
  • 22 April 1986 - a USSR Supreme Council Presidium Decree awards SibIZMIR SB AS USSR with an Order of the Red Banner of Labour for its merits in developing the physical science and its major contribution to solving important economic tasks
  • 1990 - Under USSR arms conversion, the Institute receives a Dnepr radio location system. This unique instrument has been used since 1993 for incoherent-scatter observations of the ionosphere
  • 1991 - a dissertation board is created for the defence of doctor's dissertations.
  • 11 February 1992 - Russian Academy of Sciences Act No 5 on renaming the SB RAS Siberian Institute of Earth Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation into the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS.
  • 1993 - Earth remote sensing begins, a station is organised for receiving and processing information from NOAA series satellites. Satellite monitoring is carried out in order to examine natural resources and environment in

Irkutsk region. Applicability: agriculture, hydrology, ecology and meteorology.

  • 1994 - RF Government Regulation includes the Institute's three large observing tools into the List of Russia's Unique Installations: the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope, the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope and Irkutsk Incoherent-Scatter Radar
  • 1996 - the team that created the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope is awarded an RF Government Prize in the Sphere of Science and Technology.
  • 1998 - The Baikal Young Scientists' School on fundamental physics starts its annual sessions in which foreign scientists take part.
  • 2000 - The Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS and the Center for Space Science and Applied Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (renamed the National Space Science Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NSSC CAS) in 2010) established the Joint Research Center on Space Weather (JRC-SW).
  • 2000 – The 1st Russian-Chinese Workshop on solar-terrestrial physics and its applications (space weather) was held in Irkutsk.
  • 2000 – The 1st National Conference on Solar-Terrestrial Physics with participation of foreign scientists.

[edit] 2001-2010

  • 2002 – the ISTP SB RAS Proceedings "Studies on geomagnetism, aeronomy, and solar physics" was renamed into Proceedings "Solar-terrestrial physics".
  • 2002 – beginning of regular observations using DPS-4 digital ionosondes in Irkutsk and Norilsk.
  • 2003 – basic equipment of the magnetic-ionospheric complex in Norilsk and Irkutsk was replaced with modern digital measurement systems. Proton magnetometers, declinometers-inclinometers, fluxgate variometers were installed

and started their operation.

  • 2003 – The Center for Common Use of scientific equipment (CUC) "East Siberian Center for the Earth's Ionosphere Research" was established.
  • 2004 – Russia's unique infrared telescope AZT-33IK of the Sayan Solar Observatory was put into trial operation.
  • 2006–2014 – together with S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation "Energia" and the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Space Agency, 86 series of "Plazma-Progress" and "Radar-Progress" active

space experiments were carried out.

  • 2008 – The President of the Russian Academy of Sciences academician Yu.S. Osipov approved the project of the National heliogeophysical complex of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
  • 2009 – pilot multi-wave radioheliograph was built up.
  • 2009 – coordinate and non-coordinate parameters of the "Kosmos-2251" spacecraft wreckage were measured after colliding with spacecraft "Iridium-33".
  • 2010 – construction of new generation solar telescopes for operational predictions was completed, those installed in the ISTP SB RAS Baikal Astrophysical Observatory, FEB RAS Ussuriysk Astrophysical Observatory and СAO RAS Mountain astronomical station (as part of the Federal target program "Creation and Development of geophysical situation monitoring system over the territory of the Russian Federation for 2008-2015"). The telescopes are designed for monitoring large-scale magnetic fields of the Sun, as the basis for monitoring and prediction of heliogeophysical situation in near-Earth space.
  • 2010 – CUC "Solar-terrestrial physics and near-Earth space control"- the "Angara" CUC was established instead of CUC "East-Siberian ionosphere Research Center".

[edit] 2011– to date

  • 2011 – development and putting into operation of 2-24 GHz digital spectropolarimeter designed for measurements of microwave spectrum of solar flares.
  • 2011 – as part of rescue operation, coordinate and non-coordinate parameters of the break-down Russian space station "Phobos-grunt" were measured and handed over to Inter-state joint stock corporation "Vympel".
  • 2013 – construction of Astronomical Tower for the AZT-33VM unique telescope at the Sayan Solar Observatory was completed.
  • 2013 – solar atmosphere radio maps with ~ 30 dB dynamic range and temperature sensitivity ≤ 500 at 5.7 GHz frequency were derived. The radio maps were restored from the Siberian solar radiotelescope primary data using the

elaborated method of observations automatic processing, allowing maximum use of the instrument possibilities.

  • 2013 – Method for monitoring discrete cosmic radio sources within the 149-164 MHz range using Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar was elaborated. Soft hardware complex was developed, which enables high timing resolution (seconds)

and great dynamic range (70 dB) registration of radio emission flux of discrete cosmic radio sources that pass through the radar view, such as: the Sun, Swan-A, Cassiopeia-A, etc.

  • 2013 – the Institute arranged a Conference on the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program with meaningful participation of the world's leading experts in solar-terrestrial relations.
  • 2013 – a distance-separated complex of geophysical instruments was established (coherent ionospheric radar, network of GPS/GLONASS receivers, infrasound station, optical systems to measure air glow, network of magnetic

stations, ionosondes), which provides monitoring of near-Earth space, including potentially dangerous phenomena and objects.

  • 2013 – beginning of works under the Scaled-up investment project "National heliogeophysical complex of the Russian Academy of Sciences", a contract is signed with JSC "Lytkarino optical glass factory" for execution of works related to elaboration of design and detailed documentation.
  • 2014 – issue of the RF Government Resolution "About budget allocations for permanent structures design and construction "Scaled-up investment project "National heliogeophysical complex of the Russian Academy of Sciences", phase 1", where the Institute is determined as the developer (customer).
  • 2015 – publication of the first 4 issues of the Journal "Solar-terrestrial physics", founded as a follow-up of the related proceedings; the journal was included into the Astrophysics Data System international reference database and into the WAC list.
  • 2015 – the first Russian wide-field high sensitivity survey telescope AZT-33VM was put into trial operation in the Sayan Solar Observatory. With the AZT-33VM introduction, creation of astrophysical complex including the AZT-33IK, AZT-33VM and technical building was completed. The astrophysical complex is designed to solve the Universe structure fundamental problems, practical problems of near-Earth space monitoring, information support of spacecraft groups' operation, anthropogenic pollution of the outer space, and problems of asteroidal-cometary hazard.
  • 2015 – multi-frequency radioheliograph was put into operation in the Institute Radioastrophysical Observatory.
  • 2016 – beginning of regular observations on multifrequency radioheliograph of the ISTP SB RAS Radioastrophysical Observatory.
  • 2016 – elaboration and putting into operation of the ISTP SB RAS Large solar vacuum telescope automated control system.
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