Space Monitoring Centre


[edit] Space satellite remote sensing of the Earth

Remote sensing is a new division of current terrestrial science that is at the interfaces between such branches of science as mathematics, physics, informatics, geography and biology.

Space Monitoring Centre (SMC) of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS performs research associated with practical application of satellite remote sensing data (RSD). The SMC technical basis is the hardware and software complex for receiving and processing satellite data from the American Satellite System of National Ocean and Atmosphere Agency (NOAA). The system is of low spatial resolution and high periodicity, as the Irkutsk region survey is made 4 times per day.

[edit] History

In 1993, the Irkutsk region administration provided financial support to the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS within the framework of alternative information technology transition. The created Space Monitoring Centre enabled on-line control of environmental conditions and natural resources of the Irkutsk region.

During its functioning time (from January, 1994), the Centre has elaborated and created multilevel information system of environmental space-time monitoring; the system includes hardware and software of satellite-data collection, processing, analysis, and storage. Satellite data users at administrative level of regional and federal structures have become more numerous due to the implementation of modern GIS-technologies.

SMC has elaborated and implemented satellite system of forest fire monitoring and has realized monitoring of lake Baikal ecosystem elements. Besides, SMC workers have designed algorithms for meteorological characterization in the Eastern Siberia territory, as well as other regional and federal projects.

[edit] Results

SMC has worked on the following problems in the remote sensing domain:

  1. Elaboration of detection technique of small-scale (up to 10 m2) high-temperature objects. Elaboration results are the basis of federal system of satellite forest-fire detection created in collaboration with the following RAS institutes: the Space Research Institute (Moscow), the Forest Institute (Krasnoyarsk), the Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Tomsk) and others.
  2. Remote evaluation of vegetation variability in the Northern Eurasia territory as a result of nature’s and man’s impact. Evaluation purpose is to calculate amount of CO2 emission in the atmosphere and to estimate carbon balance.
  3. Temperature evaluation of the Earth surface and large freshwater basins in collaboration with the Limnological Institute SB RAS and the Institute of Geochemistry SB RAS. This technique enables regular maps of lake Baikal surface temperature distribution along the entire water area what is difficult with contact methods. Measurement data on the Earth surface temperature are used for studying geochemical and geological parameters in specific tectonic areas, e.g. Baikal rift zone.
  4. Remote sensing of middle and lower atmospheric parameters. On-board satellite instruments permit measuring of different atmospheric parameters for standard isobaric levels from 0 to 30 km (temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and velocity, total ozone). Measurement data are used by different subdivisions of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, e.g. for studying relations between total ozone, temperature dynamics of the middle atmosphere, disturbance of the upper atmospheric glow intensity and temperature at a height of 30 km.


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