Correspondence of scientific degrees in Russia, USA and European countries


RussiaWestern equivalentsComments
C. Sc. (Candidate of Science)Ph.D.The “candidate of science” degree is roughly equivalent to US Ph.D. degree, although it requires longer research efforts, more publications, wider exposure, and larger peer pool to pass.
D. Sc. (Doctor of Science)HabilitationIn the former Soviet Union and the various post-Soviet states, the status of Doctor of Science is a post-doctoral degree and has no equivalent in US academic system. It is roughly equivalent to Habilitation in Germany, France, Austria, and some other European countries.
AcademicianFellow of the Royal SocietyThe British honour Fellow of the Royal Society can be considered as roughly equivalent.
Corr. Member (Corresponding member)Corresponding MemberA lower-rank title (as compared with Academician). Corresponding Members of Russian Academy of Sciences are elected based upon scientific contributions and must be citizens of the Russian Federation.
Foreign MemberForeign MemberForeign Members are eminent scientists of other countries who obtained the recognition of the world scientific community.
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